Global food demand is increasing and so are the environmental impacts of production. The price of food will rise. Our goal should no longer be to maximize productivity. Because of environmental and economic reasons, a trend towards diets containing less animal protein will become inevitable. The positive impacts of sustainability will largely depend on a diet shift. Economic variables, such as income and prices, will create an equilibrium between animal and plant protein products. World population, incomes, and consumer preferences will determine future food prices. If consumers can shift their preferences away from animal proteins by one third, the majority of prime agricultural lands could be set free from growing feed for animals, and be used to grow other agricultural crops. The International Health Council agrees that nutritional guidelines should reflect a diet with less animal proteins. This would result is the reduction of demands on land, freshwater, and biodiversity resources. It also would provide benefits for both human health and animal welfare.